Botswana
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currency: Pula (BWP)
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Botswana profile
landlocked;

population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Botswana history
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Botswana

Conventional short form: Botswana

Local long form: Republic of Botswana

Local short form: Botswana

Formerly known as: Bechuanaland
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Botswana's capital city is Gaborone
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Botswana Constitution:

March 1965;

effective 30 September 1966
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Botswana population growth rate: 1.477%
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Botswana highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
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Botswana lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
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About 1% of Botswana's land is arable.
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Limpopo is the Longest River in Botswana
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Botswana birth rate is 22 births/1,000 population
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Botswana infant mortality rate is 10 deaths/1,000 live births
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Botswana fertility rate is 2.41 children born/woman
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Botswana climate:

semiarid;

warm winters and hot summers
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Top 10 cities of Botswana with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Gaborone: 227,333
2. Francistown: 100,079
3. Molepolole: 67,598
4. Mogoditshane: 57,637
5. Maun: 55,784
6. Selibe Phikwe: 49,724
7. Serowe: 47,447
8. Kanye: 45,196
9. Mochudi: 44,339
10. Mahalapye: 41,316
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Botswana ethnic groups:

Tswana (or Setswana) - 79%
Kalanga - 11%
Basarwa - 3%
other, including Kgalagadi and white - 7%
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Botswana Exports:

diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
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Botswana Imports:

foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
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bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Chiefs (a largely advisory 35-member body with 8 ex-officio members consisting of the chiefs of the principal tribes, and 27 non-permanent members serving 5-year terms, of which 22 are indirectly elected with the remaining 5 appointed by the President) and the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected by popular vote, 4 appointed by the majority party, and 2, the President and Attorney General, serve as ex-officio members; members serve five-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
9 districts

1. Central
2. Ghanzi
3. Kgalagadi
4. Kgatleng
5. Kweneng
6. North East
7. North West
8. South East
9. Southern

5 town councils:

1. Francistown
2. Gaborone
3. Jwaneng
4. Lobatse
5. Selebi-Pikwe
Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Alliance Movement (BAM) - Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO

Botswana Congress Party (BCP) - Dumelang SALESHANDO

Botswana Democratic Party (BDP) - Daniel KWELAGOBE

Botswana Movement for Democracy (BMD) - Gomolemo MOTSWALEDI

Botswana National Front (BNF) - Duma BOKO

Botswana Peoples Party (BPP) - Bernard BALIKANI

MELS Movement of Botswana (MELS) - Themba JOINA

New Democratic Front (NDF) - Dick BAYFORD

note: a number of minor parties joined forces in 1999 to form the BAM but did not capture any parliamentary seats - includes

the United Action Party [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO

the Independence Freedom Party (IFP) - Motsamai MPHO

the Botswana Progressive Union - D. K. KWELE